NOTE: This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test method: Method 1.
The purpose of the method is to provide guidance for the selection of sampling ports and traverse points at which sampling for air pollutants will be performed pursuant to regulations set forth in this part.
The applicability and principle of this method are identical to Method 1, except its applicability is limited to stacks or ducts. This method is applicable to flowing gas streams in ducts, stacks, and flues of less than about 0.30 meter (12 in.) in diameter, or 0.071 m2 (113 in.2) in cross-sectional area, but equal to or greater than about 0.10 meter (4 in.) in diameter, or 0.0081 m2 (12.57 in.2) in cross-sectional area. This method cannot be used when the flow is cyclonic or swirling.
Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.
2.1 The method is designed to aid in the representative measurement of pollutant emissions and/or total volumetric flow rate from a stationary source. A measurement site or a pair of measurement sites where the effluent stream is flowing in a known direction is (are) selected. The cross-section of the stack is divided into a number of equal areas. Traverse points are then located within each of these equal areas.
2.2 In these small diameter stacks or ducts, the conventional Method 5 stack assembly (consisting of a Type S pitot tube attached to a sampling probe, equipped with a nozzle and thermocouple) blocks a significant portion of the cross-section of the duct and causes inaccurate measurements. Therefore, for particulate matter (PM) sampling in small stacks or ducts, the gas velocity is measured using a standard pitot tube downstream of the actual emission sampling site. The straight run of duct between the PM sampling and velocity measurement sites allows the flow profile, temporarily disturbed by the presence of the sampling Probe, to redevelop and stabilize.
This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.
Steady or Unsteady flow. Select a particulate measurement site located preferably at least eight equivalent stack or duct diameters downstream and 10 equivalent diameters upstream from any flow disturbances such as bends, expansions, or contractions in the stack, or from a visible flame. Next, locate the velocity measurement site eight equivalent diameters downstream of the particulate measurement site (see Figure 1A-1). If such locations are not available, select an alternative particulate measurement location at least two equivalent stack or duct diameters downstream and two and one-half diameters upstream from any flow disturbance. Then, locate the velocity measurement site two equivalent diameters downstream from the particulate measurement site. (See Section 12.2 of Method 1 for calculating equivalent diameters for a rectangular cross-section.)
Measurements. For PM sampling when the volumetric flow rate in a duct is constant with respect to time, Section 11.1.1 of Method 1 may be followed, with the PM sampling and velocity measurement performed at one location. To demonstrate that the flow rate is constant (within 10 percent) when PM measurements are made, perform complete velocity traverses before and after the PM sampling run, and calculate the deviation of the flow rate derived after the PM sampling run from the one derived before the PM sampling run. The PM sampling run is acceptable if the deviation does not exceed 10 percent.
Use Figure 1-1 of Method 1 to determine the number of traverse points to use at both the velocity measurement and PM sampling locations. Before referring to the figure, however, determine the distances between both the velocity measurement and PM sampling sites to the nearest upstream and downstream disturbances. Then divide each distance by the stack diameter or equivalent diameter to express the distances in terms of the number of duct diameters. Then, determine the number of traverse points from Figure 1-1 of Method 1 corresponding to each of these four distances. Choose the highest of the four numbers of traverse points (or a greater number) so that, for circular ducts the number is a multiple of four; and for rectangular ducts, the number is one of those shown in Table 1-1 of Method 1. When the optimum duct diameter location criteria can be satisfied, the minimum number of traverse points required is eight for circular ducts and nine for rectangular ducts.
Use Figure 1-2 of Method 1 to determine number of traverse points, following the same procedure used for PM sampling as described in Section 11.2.1 of Method 1. When the optimum duct diameter location criteria can be satisfied, the minimum number of traverse points required is eight for circular ducts and nine for rectangular ducts.
Same as Method 1, Section 16.0, References 1 through 6, with the addition of the following:
1. Vollaro, Robert F. Recommended Procedure for Sample Traverses in Ducts Smaller Than 12 Inches in Diameter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. January 1977.