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US EPA Method 17 - Determination Of Particulate Matter Emissions From Stationary Sources

NOTE: This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling and analytical) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2, Method 3, Method 5.

Necessary equipment for performing Method 17



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1.0 Scope and Application.



1.1 Analyte.

Particulate matter (PM). No CAS number assigned.

NOTE: Particulate matter is not an absolute quantity. It is a function of temperature and pressure. Therefore, to prevent variability in PM emission regulations and/or associated test methods, the temperature and pressure at which PM is to be measured must be carefully defined. Of the two variables (i.e., temperature and pressure), temperature has the greater effect upon the amount of PM in an effluent gas stream; in most stationary source categories, the effect of pressure appears to be negligible. In Method 5, 120 C (248 F) is established as a nominal reference temperature. Thus, where Method 5 is specified in an applicable subpart of the standard, PM is defined with respect to temperature. In order to maintain a collection temperature of 120 C (248 F), Method 5 employs a heated glass sample Probe and a heated filter holder. This equipment is somewhat cumbersome and requires care in its operation. Therefore, where PM concentrations (over the normal range of temperature associated with a specified source category) are known to be independent of temperature, it is desirable to eliminate the glass probe and the heating systems, and to sample at stack temperature.



1.2 Applicability.

This method is applicable for the determination of PM emissions, where PM concentrations are known to be independent of temperature over the normal range of temperatures characteristic of emissions from a specified source category. It is intended to be used only when specified by an applicable subpart of the standards, and only within the applicable temperature limits (if specified), or when otherwise approved by the Administrator. This method is not applicable to stacks that contain liquid droplets or are saturated with water vapor. In addition, this method shall not be used as written if the projected cross-sectional area of the probe extension-filter holder assembly covers more than 5 percent of the stack cross-sectional area (see Section 8.1.2).



1.3 Data Quality Objectives.

Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.



2.0 Summary of Method.

2.1 Particulate matter is withdrawn isokinetically from the source and collected on a glass fiber filter maintained at stack temperature. The PM mass is determined gravimetrically after the removal of uncombined water.



3.0 Definitions.

Same as Method 5, Section 3.0.



4.0 Interferences. [Reserved]




5.0 Safety.



5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.



6.0 Equipment and Supplies.



6.1 Sampling Train.

A schematic of the sampling train used in this method is shown in Figure 17-1. The sampling train components and operation and maintenance are very similar to Method 5, which should be consulted for details.



6.1.1 probe nozzle, Differential Pressure Gauge, metering System, barometer, Gas Density Determination equipment. Same as in Method 5, Sections 6.1.1, 6.1.4, 6.1.8, 6.1.9, and



6.1.10, respectively.



6.1.2 filter holder. The in-stack filter holder shall be constructed of borosilicate or quartz glass, or stainless steel. If a gasket is used, it shall be made of silicone rubber, Teflon, or stainless steel. Other holder and gasket materials may be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator. The filter holder shall be designed to provide a positive seal against leakage from the outside or around the filter.



6.1.3 Probe Extension. Any suitable rigid probe extension may be used after the filter holder.



6.1.4 pitot Tube. Same as in Method 5, Section 6.1.3.



6.1.4.1 It is recommended (1) that the pitot tube have a known baseline coefficient, determined as outlined in Section 10 of Method 2; and (2) that this known coefficient be preserved by placing the pitot tube in an interference-free arrangement with respect to the sampling nozzle, filter holder, and temperature sensor (see Figure 17-1). Note that the 1.9 cm (3/4-in.) free-space between the nozzle and pitot tube shown in Figure 17-1, is based on a 1.3 cm (1/2-in.) ID nozzle. If the sampling train is designed for sampling at higher flow rates than that described in APTD- 0581, thus necessitating the use of larger sized nozzle, the free-space shall be 1.9 cm (3/4-in.) with the largest sized nozzle in place.



6.1.4.2 Source-sampling assemblies that do not meet the minimum spacing requirements of Figure 17-1 (or the equivalent of these requirements, e.g., Figure 2-4 of Method 2) may be used; however, the pitot tube coefficients of such assemblies shall be determined by calibration, using methods subject to the approval of the Administrator.



6.1.5 condenser. It is recommended that the impinger system or alternatives described in Method 5 be used to determine the moisture content of the stack gas. Flexible tubing may be used between the probe extension and condenser. Long tubing lengths may affect the moisture determination.



6.2 Sample Recovery.

Probe-liner and probe-nozzles brushes, wash bottles, glass sample storage containers, petri dishes, graduated cylinder and/or balance, plastic storage containers, funnel and rubber policeman, funnel. Same as in Method 5, Sections 6.2.1 through 6.2.8, respectively.



6.3 Sample Analysis.

glass weighing dishes, desiccator, analytical balance, balance, beakers, hygrometer, Temperature Sensor. Same as in Method 5, Sections 6.3.1 through 6.3.7, respectively.



7.0 Reagents and Standards.



7.1 Sampling.

filters, silica gel, water, crushed ice, stopcock grease. Same as in Method 5, Sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, 7.1.3, 7.1.4, and 7.1.5, respectively. Thimble glass fiber filters may also be used.



7.2 Sample Recovery.

Acetone (reagent grade). Same as in Method 5, Section 7.2.



7.3 Sample Analysis.

Acetone and Desiccant. Same as in Method 5, Sections 7.3.1 and 7.3.2, respectively.



8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, and Transport.



8.1 Sampling.



8.1.1 Pretest Preparation.

Same as in Method 5, Section 8.1.1.



8.1.2 Preliminary Determinations.

Same as in Method 5, Section 8.1.2, except as follows: Make a projected-area model of the probe extension-filter holder assembly, with the pitot tube face openings positioned along the centerline of the stack, as shown in Figure 17-2. Calculate the estimated cross-section blockage, as shown in Figure 17-2. If the blockage exceeds 5 percent of the duct cross sectional area, the tester has the following options exist: (1) a suitable out-of-stack filtration method may be used instead of in-stack filtration; or (2) a special in-stack arrangement, in which the sampling and velocity measurement sites are separate, may be used; for details concerning this approach, consult with the Administrator (see also Reference 1 in Section 17.0). Select a probe extension length such that all traverse points can be sampled. For large stacks, consider sampling from opposite sides of the stack to reduce the length of probes.



8.1.3 Preparation of Sampling Train.

Same as in Method 5, Section 8.1.3, except the following: Using a tweezer or clean disposable surgical gloves, place a labeled (identified) and weighed filter in the filter holder. Be sure that the filter is properly centered and the gasket properly placed so as not to allow the sample gas stream to circumvent the filter. Check filter for tears after assembly is completed. Mark the probe extension with heat resistant tape or by some other method to denote the proper distance into the stack or duct for each sampling point. Assemble the train as in Figure 17-1, using a very light coat of silicone grease on all ground glass joints and greasing only the outer portion (see APTD-0576) to avoid possibility of contamination by the silicone grease. Place crushed ice around the impingers.



8.1.4 Leak-Check Procedures.

Same as in Method 5, Section 8.1.4, except that the filter holder is inserted into the stack during the sampling train leak-check. To do this, plug the inlet to the probe nozzle with a material that will be able to withstand the stack temperature. Insert the filter holder into the stack and wait approximately 5 minutes (or longer, if necessary) to allow the system to come to equilibrium with the temperature of the stack gas stream.



8.1.5 Sampling Train Operation.

The operation is the same as in Method 5. Use a data sheet such as the one shown in Figure 5-3 of Method 5, except that the filter holder temperature is not recorded.



8.1.6 Calculation of Percent Isokinetic.

Same as in Method 5, Section 12.11.



8.2 Sample Recovery.



8.2.1 Proper cleanup procedure begins as soon as the probe extension assembly is removed from the stack at the end of the sampling period. Allow the assembly to cool.



8.2.2 When the assembly can be safely handled, wipe off all external particulate matter near the tip of the probe nozzle and place a cap over it to prevent losing or gaining particulate matter. Do not cap off the probe tip tightly while the sampling train is cooling down as this would create a vacuum in the filter holder, forcing condenser water backward.



8.2.3 Before moving the sample train to the cleanup site, disconnect the filter holder - probe nozzle assembly from the probe extension; cap the open inlet of the probe extension. Be careful not to lose any condensate, if present. Remove the umbilical cord from the condenser outlet and cap the outlet. If a flexible line is used between the first impinger (or condenser) and the probe extension, disconnect the line at the probe extension and let any condensed water or liquid drain into the impingers or condenser. Disconnect the probe extension from the condenser; cap the probe extension outlet. After wiping off the silicone grease, cap off the condenser inlet. Ground glass stoppers, plastic caps, or serum caps (whichever are appropriate) may be used to close these openings.



8.2.4 Transfer both the filter holder-Probe nozzle assembly and the condenser to the cleanup area. This area should be clean and protected from the wind so that the chances of contaminating or losing the sample will be minimized.



8.2.5 Save a portion of the acetone used for cleanup as a blank. Take 200 ml of this acetone from the wash bottle being used and place it in a glass sample container labeled "acetone blank." Inspect the train prior to and during disassembly and not any abnormal conditions. Treat the sample as discussed in Method 5, Section 8.2.



9.0 Quality Control. [Reserved]




10.0 Calibration and Standardization.

The calibrations of the Probe nozzle, pitot tube, metering system, temperature sensors, and barometer are the same as in Method 5, Sections 10.1 through 10.3, 10.5, and 10.6, respectively.



11.0 Analytical Procedure.

Same as in Method 5, Section 11.0. Analytical data should be recorded on a form similar to that shown in Figure 5-6 of Method 5.



12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations.

Same as in Method 5, Section 12.0.



13.0 Method Performance. [Reserved]




14.0 Pollution Prevention. [Reserved]




15.0 Waste Management. [Reserved]




16.0 Alternative Procedures.

Same as in Method 5, Section 16.0.



17.0 References.

Same as in Method 5, Section 17.0, with the addition of the following:

1. Vollaro, R.F. Recommended Procedure for Sample Traverses in Ducts Smaller than 12 Inches in Diameter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement

Branch. Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1976.



18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data.

Figure 17-1. Particulate Matter Sampling Train with In-Stack Filter.

Figure 17-2. Projected-Area Model of Cross-Section Blockage (approximate average for a sample traverse) Caused by an In-Stack Filter holder-Probe Extension Assembly.