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US EPA Method 114 - Test Methods For Measuring Radionuclide Emission From Stationary Sources



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1. Purpose and Background.

This method provides the requirements for: (1) Stack monitoring and sample collection methods appropriate for radionuclides; (2) radiochemical methods which are used in determining the amounts of radionuclides collected by the stack sampling and; (3) quality assurance methods which are conducted in conjunction with these measurements. These methods are appropriate for emissions for stationary sources. A list of references is provided. Many different types of facilities release radionuclides into air. These radionuclides differ in the chemical and physical forms, half-lives and type of radiation emitted. The appropriate combination of sample extraction, collection and analysis for an individual radionuclide is dependent upon many interrelated factors including the mixture of other radionuclides present.  Because of this wide range of conditions, no single method for monitoring or sample collection and analysis of a radionuclide is applicable to all types of facilities. Therefore, a series of methods based on "principles of measurement" are described for monitoring and sample collection and analysis which are applicable to the measurement of radionuclides found in effluent streams at stationary sources. This approach provides the user with the flexibility to choose the most appropriate combination of monitoring and sample collection and analysis methods which are applicable to the effluent stream to be measured.



2. Stack Monitoring and Sample Collection Methods.

Monitoring and sample collection methods are described based on "principles of monitoring and sample collection" which are applicable to the measurement of radionuclides from effluent streams at stationary sources. Radionuclides of most elements will be in the particulate form in these effluent streams and can be readily collected using a suitable filter media. Radionuclides of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, the noble gases and in some circumstances iodine will be in the gaseous form. Radionuclides of these elements will require either the use of an in-line or off-line monitor to directly measure the radionuclides, or suitable sorbers, condensers or bubblers to collect the radionuclides.



2.1 Radionuclides as Particulates.

The extracted effluent stream is passed through a filter media to remove the particulates. The filter must have a high efficiency for removal of sub-micron particles. The guidance in ANSI N13.1-1969 shall be followed in using filter media to collect particulates (incorporated by reference-see 61.18).



2.2 Radionuclides as Gases.



2.2.1 The Radionuclide Tritium (H-3).

Tritium in the form of water vapor is collected from the extracted effluent sample by sorption, condensation or dissolution techniques. Appropriate collectors may include silica gel, molecular sieves, and ethylene glycol or water bubblers. Tritium in the gaseous form may be measured directly in the sample stream using Method B - 1, collected as a gas sample or may be oxidized using a metal catalyst to tritiated water and collected as described above.



2.2.2 Radionuclides of Iodine.

Iodine is collected from an extracted sample by sorption or dissolution techniques. Appropriate collectors may include charcoal, impregnated charcoal, metal zeolite and caustic solutions.



2.2.3 Radionuclides of Argon, Krypton and Xenon.

Radionuclides of these elements are either measured directly by an in-line or off-line monitor, or are collected from the extracted sample by low temperature sorption techniques.  Appropriate sorbers may include charcoal or metal zeolite.



2.2.4 Radionuclides of Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen and Radon.

Radionuclides of these elements are measured directly using an in-line or off-line monitor. Radionuclides of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide may be collected by dissolution in caustic solutions.



2.3 Definition of Terms.



In-line monitor

Means a continuous measurement system in which the detector is placed directly in or adjacent to the effluent stream. This may involve either gross radioactivity measurements or specific radionuclide measurements. Gross measurements shall be made in conformance with the conditions specified in Methods A-4, B-2 and G-4.



Off-line monitor

Means a measurement system in which the detector is used to continuously measure an extracted sample of the effluent stream. This may involve either gross radioactivity measurements or specific radionuclide measurements. Gross measurements shall be made in conformance with the conditions specified in Methods A-4, B-2 and G-4.



Sample collection

Means a procedure in which the radionuclides are removed from an extracted sample of the effluent using a collection media. These collection media include filters, absorbers, bubblers and condensers. The collected sample is analyzed using the methods described in Section 3.



3. Radionuclide Analysis Methods.

A series of methods based on "principles of measurement" are described which are applicable to the analysis of radionuclides collected from airborne effluent streams at stationary sources. These methods are applicable only under the conditions stated and within the limitations described. Some methods specify that only a single radionuclide be present in the sample or the chemically separated sample. This condition should be interpreted to mean that no other radionuclides are present in quantities which would interfere with the measurement. Also identified (Table 1) are methods for a selected list of radionuclides. The listed radionuclides are those which are most commonly used and which have the greatest potential for causing dose to members of the public. Use of methods based on principles of measurement other than those described in this section must be approved in advance of use by the Administrator. For radionuclides not listed in Table 1, any of the described methods may be used provided the user can demonstrate that the applicability conditions of the method have been met. The type of method applicable to the analysis of a radionuclide is dependent upon the type of radiation emitted, i.e., alpha, beta or gamma. Therefore, the methods described below are grouped according to principles of measurements for the analysis of alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides.



3.1 Methods for Alpha Emitting Radionuclides



3.1.1 Method A - 1, Radiochemistry-Alpha Spectrometry.

Principle: The element of interest is separated from other elements, and from the sample matrix using radiochemical techniques. The procedure may involve precipitation, ion exchange, or solvent extraction. Carriers (elements chemically similar to the element of interest) may be used. The element is deposited on a planchet in a very thin film by electro deposition or by coprecipitation on a very small amount of carrier, such as lanthanum fluoride. The deposited element is then counted with an alpha spectrometer. The activity of the nuclide of interest is measured by the number of alpha counts in the appropriate energy region. A correction for chemical yield and counting efficiency is made using a standardized radioactive nuclide (tracer) of the same element. If a radioactive tracer is not available for the element of interest, a predetermined chemical yield factor may be used.

Applicability: This method is applicable for determining the activity of any alpha-emitting radionuclide, regardless of what other radionuclides are present in the sample provided the chemical separation step produces a very thin sample and removes all other radionuclides which could interfere in the spectral region of interest. APHA-605(2), ASTM-D-3972(13).



3.1.2 Method A - 2, Radiochemistry-Alpha Counting.

Principle: The element of interest is separated from other elements, and from the sample matrix using radiochemistry. The procedure may involve precipitation, ion exchange, or solvent extraction. Carriers (elements chemically similar to the element of interest) may be used. The element is deposited on a planchet in a thin film and counted with a alpha counter. A correction for chemical yield (if necessary) is made. The alpha count rate measures the total activity of all emitting radionuclides of the separated element.

Applicability: This method is applicable for the measurement of any alpha-emitting radionuclide, provided no other alpha emitting radionuclide is present in the separated sample. It may also be applicable for determining compliance, when other radionuclides of the separated element are present, provided that the calculated emission rate is assigned to the radionuclide which could be present in the sample that has the highest dose conversion factor. IDO-12096(18).



3.1.3 Method A - 3, Direct Alpha Spectrometry.

Principle: The sample, collected on a suitable filter, is counted directly on an alpha spectrometer. The sample must be thin enough and collected on the surface of the filter so that any absorption of alpha particle energy in the sample or the filter, which would degrade the spectrum, is minimal.

Applicability: This method is applicable to simple mixtures of alpha emitting radionuclides and only when the amount of particulates collected on the filter paper are relatively small and the alpha spectra is adequately resolved. Resolutions should be 50 keV (FWHM) or better, ASTM-D-3084(16).



3.1.4 Method A - 4, Direct Alpha Counting (Gross alpha determination).

Principle: The sample, collected on a suitable filter, is counted with an alpha counter. The sample must be thin enough so that self-absorption is not significant and the filter must be of such a nature that the particles are retained on the surface.

Applicability: Gross alpha determinations may be used to measure emissions of specific radionuclides only (1) when it is known that the sample contains only a single radionuclide, or the identity and isotopic ratio of the radionuclides in the sample are well-known, and (2) measurements using either Method A - 1, A-2 or A-5 have shown that this method provides a reasonably accurate measurement of the emission rate. Gross alpha measurements are applicable to unidentified mixtures of radionuclides only for the purposes and under the conditions described in Section 3.7. APHA-601(3), ASTM-D-1943(10).



3.1.5 Method A - 5, Chemical Determination of Uranium.

Principle: Uranium may be measured chemically by either colorimetry or fluorometry. In both procedures, the sample is dissolved, the uranium is oxidized to the hexavalent form and extracted into a suitable solvent. Impurities are removed from the solvent layer. For colorimetry, dibenzoylmethane is added, and the uranium is measured by the absorbance in a colorimeter. For fluorometry, a portion of the solution is fused with a sodium fluoride-lithium fluoride flux and the uranium is determined by the ultraviolet activated fluorescence of the fused disk in a fluorometer.

Applicability: This method is applicable to the measurements of emission rates of uranium when the isotopic ratio of the uranium radionuclides is well known. ASTM-E-318(15), ASTM-D2907(14).



3.1.6 Method A - 6, Radon-222-Continuous Gas Monitor.

Principle: Radon-222 is measured directly in a continuously extracted sample stream by passing the air stream through a calibrated scintillation cell. Prior to the scintillation cell, the air stream is treated to remove particulates and excess moisture. The alpha particles from radon-222 and its decay products strike a zinc sulfide coating on the inside of the scintillation cell producing light pulses. The light pulses are detected by a photomultiplier tube which generates electrical pulses. These pulses are processed by the system electronics and the read out is in pCi/l of radon-222.

Applicability: This method is applicable to the measurement of radon-222 in effluent streams which do not contain significant quantities of radon-220. Users of this method should calibrate the monitor in a radon calibration chamber at least twice per year. The background of the monitor should also be checked periodically by operating the instrument in a low radon environment. EPA 520/1-89-009(24).



3.1.7 Method A - 7, Radon-222-Alpha Track Detectors

Principle: Radon-222 is measured directly in the effluent stream using alpha track detectors (ATD). The alpha particles emitted by radon-222 and its decay products strike a small plastic strip and produce submicron damage tracks. The plastic strip is placed in a caustic solution that accentuates the damage tracks which are counted using a microscope or automatic counting system. The number of tracks per unit area is correlated to the radon concentration in air using a conversion factor derived from data generated in a radon calibration facility.

Applicability: Prior approval from EPA is required for use of this method. This method is only applicable to effluent streams which do not contain significant quantities of radon-220, unless special detectors are used to discriminate against radon-220. This method may be used only when ATDs have been demonstrated to produce data comparable to data obtained with Method A - 6. Such data should be submitted to EPA when requesting approval for the use of this method. EPA 520/1-89-009(24).



3.2 Methods for Gaseous Beta Emitting Radionuclides.



3.2.1 Method B - 1, Direct Counting in flow-Through Ionization Chambers.

Principle: An ionization chamber containing a specific volume of gas which flows at a given flow rate through the chamber is used. The sample (effluent stream sample) acts as the counting gas for the chamber. The activity of the radionuclide is determined from the current measured in the ionization chamber.

Applicability: This method is applicable for measuring the activity of a gaseous beta-emitting radionuclide in an effluent stream that is suitable as a counting gas, when no other beta-emitting nuclides are present. DOE/EP-0096(17), NCRP-58(23).



3.2.2 Method B - 2, Direct Counting With In-line or Off-line Beta Detectors.

Principle: The beta detector is placed directly in the effluent stream (in-line) or an extracted sample of the effluent stream is passed through a chamber containing a beta detector (offline). The activities of the radionuclides present in the effluent stream are determined from the beta count rate, and a knowledge of the radionuclides present and the relationship of the gross beta count rate and the specific radionuclide concentration.

Applicability: This method is applicable only to radionuclides with maximum beta particle energies greater then 0.2 MeV. This method may be used to measure emissions of specific radionuclides only when it is known that the sample contains only a single radionuclide or the identity and isotopic ratio of the radionuclides in the effluent stream are well known. Specific radionuclide analysis of periodic grab samples may be used to identify the types and quantities of radionuclides present and to establish the relationship between specific radionuclide analyses and gross beta count rates. This method is applicable to unidentified mixtures of gaseous radionuclides only for the purposes and under the conditions described in Section 3.7.



3.3 Methods for Non-Gaseous Beta Emitting Radionuclides.



3.3.1 Method B - 3, Radiochemistry-Beta Counting.

Principle: The element of interest is separated from other elements, and from the sample matrix by radiochemistry. This may involve precipitation, distillation, ion exchange, or solvent extraction. Carriers (elements chemically similar to the element of interest) may be used. The element is deposited on a planchet, and counted with a beta counter. Corrections for chemical yield, and decay (if necessary) are made. The beta count rate determines the total activity of all radionuclides of the separated element. This method may also involve the radiochemical separation and counting of a daughter element, after a suitable period of in-growth, in which case it is specific for the parent nuclide.

Applicability: This method is applicable for measuring the activity of any beta-emitting radionuclide, with a maximum energy greater than 0.2 MeV, provided no other radionuclide is present in the separated sample. APHA-608(5).



3.3.2 Method B - 4, Direct Beta Counting (Gross beta determination).

Principle: The sample, collected on a suitable filter, is counted with a beta counter. The sample must be thin enough so that self-absorption corrections can be made.

Applicability: Gross beta measurements are applicable only to radionuclides with maximum beta particle energies greater than 0.2 MeV. Gross beta measurements may be used to measure emissions of specific radionuclides only (1) when it is known that the sample contains only a single radionuclide, and (2) measurements made using Method B - 3 show reasonable agreement with the gross beta measurement. Gross beta measurements are applicable to mixtures of radionuclides only for the purposes and under the conditions described in Section 3.7. APHA-602(4), ASTM-D-1890(11).



3.3.3 Method B - 5, Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry.

Principle: An aliquot of a collected sample or the result of some other chemical separation or processing technique is added to a liquid scintillation "cocktail" which is viewed by photomultiplier tubes in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The spectrometer is adjusted to establish a channel or "window" for the pulse energy appropriate to the nuclide of interest. The activity of the nuclide of interest is measured by the counting rate in the appropriate energy channel. Corrections are made for chemical yield where separations are made.

Applicability: This method is applicable to any beta-emitting nuclide when no other radionuclide is present in the sample or the separated sample provided that it can be incorporated in the scintillation cocktail. This method is also applicable for samples which contain more than one radionuclide but only when the energies of the beta particles are sufficiently separated so that they can be resolved by the spectrometer. This method is most applicable to the measurement of low-energy beta emitters such as tritium and carbon-14. APHA-609(6), EML-LV-539-17(19).



3.4 Gamma Emitting Radionuclides



3.4.1 Method G - 1, High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry.

Principle: The sample is counted with a high resolution gamma detector, usually either a Ge(Li) or a high purity Ge detector, connected to a multichannel analyzer or computer. The gamma emitting radionuclides in the sample are measured from the gamma count rates in the energy regions characteristic of the individual radionuclide. Corrections are made for counts contributed by other radionuclides to the spectral regions of the radionuclides of interest. Radiochemical separations may be made prior to counting but are usually not necessary.

Applicability: This method is applicable to the measurement of any gamma emitting radionuclide with gamma energies greater than 20 keV. It can be applied to complex mixtures of radionuclides. The samples counted may be in the form of particulate filters, absorbers, liquids or gases. The method may also be applied to the analysis of gaseous gamma emitting radionuclides directly in an effluent stream by passing the stream through a chamber or cell containing the detector. ASTM-3649(9), IDO-12096(18).



3.4.2 Method G - 2, Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry.

Principle: The sample is counted with a low resolution gamma detector, a thallium activated sodium iodide crystal. The detector is coupled to a photomultiplier tube and connected to a multichannel analyzer. The gamma emitting radionuclides in the sample are measured from the gamma count rates in the energy regions characteristic of the individual radionuclides. Corrections are made for counts contributed by other radionuclides to the spectral regions of the radionuclides of interest. Radiochemical separation may be used prior to counting to obtain less complex gamma spectra if needed.

Applicability: This method is applicable to the measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides with energies greater than 100 keV. It can be applied only to relatively simple mixtures of gamma emitting radionuclides. The samples counted may be in the form of particulate filters, absorbers, liquids or gas. The method can be applied to the analysis of gaseous radionuclides directly in an effluent stream by passing the gas stream through a chamber or cell containing the detector. ASTM-D-2459(12), EMSL-LV-0539-17(19).



3.4.3 Method G - 3, Single Channel Gamma Spectrometry.

Principle: The sample is counted with a thallium activated sodium iodide crystal. The detector is coupled to a photomultiplier tube connected to a single channel analyzer. The activity of a gamma emitting radionuclide is determined from the gamma counts in the energy range for which the counter is set.

Applicability: This method is applicable to the measurement of a single gamma emitting radionuclide. It is not applicable to mixtures of radionuclides. The samples counted may be in the form of particulate filters, absorbers, liquids or gas. The method can be applied to the analysis of gaseous radionuclides directly in an effluent stream by passing the gas stream through a chamber or cell containing the detector.



3.4.4 Method G - 4, Gross Gamma Counting.

Principle: The sample is counted with a gamma detector usually a thallium activated sodium iodine crystal. The detector is coupled to a photomultiplier tube and gamma rays above a specific threshold energy level are counted.

Applicability: Gross gamma measurements may be used to measure emissions of specific radionuclides only when it is known that the sample contains a single radionuclide or the identity and isotopic ratio of the radionuclides in the effluent stream are well known. When gross gamma measurements are used to determine emissions of specific radionuclides periodic measurements using Methods G-1 or G-2 should be made to demonstrate that the gross gamma measurements provide reliable emission data. This method may be applied to analysis of gaseous radionuclides directly in an effluent stream by placing the detector directly in or adjacent to the effluent stream or passing an extracted sample of the effluent stream through a chamber or cell containing the detector.



3.5 Counting Methods.

All of the above methods with the exception of Method A - 5 involve counting the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Counting methods applicable to the measurement of alpha, beta and gamma radiations are listed below. The equipment needed and the counting principles involved are described in detail in ASTM-3648(8).



3.5.1 Alpha Counting:

- Gas flow Proportional Counters. The alpha particles cause ionization  in the counting gas and the resulting electrical pulses are counted. These counters may be windowless or have very thin windows.

- Scintillation Counters. The alpha particles transfer energy to a scintillator resulting in a production of light photons which strike a photomultiplier tube converting the light photons to electrical pulses which are counted. The counters may involve the use of solid scintillation materials such as zinc sulfide or liquid scintillation solutions.

- Solid-State Counters. Semiconductor materials, such as silicon surface-barrier p-n junctions, act as solid ionization chambers. The alpha particles interact which the detector producing electron hole pairs. The charged pair is collected by an applied electrical field and the resulting electrical pulses are counted.

- Alpha Spectrometers. Semiconductor detectors used in conjunction with multichannel analyzers for energy discrimination.



3.5.2 Beta Counting:

- Ionization Chambers. These chambers contain the beta-emitting nuclide in gaseous form. The ionization current produced is measured.

- Geiger-Muller (GM) Counters-or Gas flow Proportional Counters. The beta particles cause ionization in the counting gas and the resulting electrical pulses are counted. Proportional gas flow counters which are heavily shielded by lead or other metal, and provided with an anti-coincidence shield to reject cosmic rays, are called low background beta counters.

- Scintillation Counters. The beta particles transfer energy to a scintillator resulting in a production of light photons, which strike a photomultiplier tube converting the light photon to electrical pulses which are counted. This may involve the use of anthracene crystals, plastic scintillator, or liquid scintillation solutions with organic phosphors.

- Liquid Scintillation Spectrometers. Liquid scintillation counters which use two photomultiplier tubes in coincidence to reduce background counts. This counter may also electronically discriminate among pulses of a given range of energy.



3.5.3 Gamma Counting:

- Low-Resolution Gamma Spectrometers. The gamma rays interact with thallium activated sodium iodide or cesium iodide crystal resulting in the release of light photons which strike a photomultiplier tube converting the light pulses to electrical pulses proportional to the energy of the gamma ray. Multi-channel analyzers are used to separate and store the pulses according to the energy absorbed in the crystal.

- High-Resolution gamma Spectrometers. Gamma rays interact with a lithium-drifted (Ge(Li)) or high-purity germanium (HPGe) semiconductor detectors resulting in a production of electron-hole pairs. The charged pair is collected by an applied electrical field. A very stable low noise preamplifier amplifies the pulses of electrical charge resulting from the gamma photon interactions. Multichannel analyzers or computers are used to separate and store the pulses according to the energy absorbed in the crystal.

- Single Channel Analyzers. Thallium activated sodium iodide crystals used with a single window analyzer. Pulses from the photomultiplier tubes are separated in a single predetermined energy range.



3.5.4 calibration of Counters.

Counters are calibrated for specific radionuclide measurements using a standard of the radionuclide under either identical or very similar conditions as the sample to be counted. For gamma spectrometers a series of standards covering the energy range of interest may be used to construct a calibration curve relating gamma energy to counting efficiency. In those cases where a standard is not available for a radionuclide, counters may be calibrated using a standard with energy characteristics as similar as possible to the radionuclide to be measured. For gross alpha and beta measurements of the unidentified mixtures of radionuclides, alpha counters are calibrated with a natural uranium standard and beta counters with a cesium-137 standard. The standard must contain the same weight and distribution of solids as the samples, and be mounted in an identical manner. If the samples contain variable amounts of solids, calibration curves relating weight of solids present to counting efficiency are prepared. Standards other than those prescribed may be used provided it can be shown that such standards are more applicable to the radionuclide mixture measured.



3.6 Radiochemical Methods for Selected Radionuclides.

Methods for a selected list of radionuclides are listed in Table 1. The radionuclides listed are those which are most commonly used and which have the greatest potential for causing doses to members of the public. For radionuclides not listed in Table 1, methods based on any of the applicable "principles of measurement" described in Section 3.1 through 3.4 may be used.



3.7 Applicability of Gross Alpha and Beta Measurements to Unidentified Mixtures of Radionuclides.

Gross alpha and beta measurements may be used as a screening measurement as a part of an emission measurement program to identify the need to do specific radionuclide analyses or to confirm or verify that unexpected radionuclides are not being released in significant quantities. Gross alpha (Method A - 4) or gross beta (Methods B-2 or B-4) measurements may also be used for the purpose of comparing the measured concentrations in the effluent stream with the limiting "Concentration Levels for Environmental Compliance" in Table 2 of appendix E. For unidentified mixtures, the measured concentration value shall be compared with the lowest environmental concentration limit for any radionuclide which is not known to be absent from the effluent stream.

Table 1-List of Approved Methods for Specific Radionuclides

_____________________________________________________________



4. Quality Assurance Methods.

Each facility required to measure their radionuclide emissions shall conduct a quality assurance program in conjunction with the radionuclide emission measurements. This program shall assure that the emission measurements are representative, and are of known precision and accuracy and shall include administrative controls to assure prompt response when emission measurements indicate unexpectedly large emissions. The program shall consist of a system of policies, organizational responsibilities, written procedures, data quality specifications, audits, corrective actions and reports. This quality assurance program shall include the following program elements:



4.1 The organizational structure, functional responsibilities, levels of authority and lines of communications for all activities related to the emissions measurement program shall be identified and documented.



4.2 Administrative controls shall be prescribed to ensure prompt response in the event that emission levels increase due to unplanned operations.



4.3 The sample collection and analysis procedures used in measuring the emissions shall be described including where applicable:



4.3.1 Identification of sampling sites and number of sampling points, including the rationale for site selections.



4.3.2 A description of sampling Probes and representativeness of the samples.



4.3.3 A description of any continuous monitoring system used to measure emissions, including the sensitivity of the system, calibration procedures and frequency of calibration.



4.3.4 A description of the sample collection systems for each radionuclide measured, including frequency of collection, calibration procedures and frequency of calibration.



4.3.5 A description of the laboratory analysis procedures used for each radionuclide measured, including frequency of analysis, calibration procedures and frequency of calibration.



4.3.6 A description of the sample flow rate measurement systems or procedures, including calibration procedures and frequency of calibration.



4.3.7 A description of the effluent flow rate measurement procedures, including frequency of measurements, calibration procedures and frequency of calibration.



4.4 The objectives of the quality assurance program shall be documented and shall state the required precision, accuracy and completeness of the emission measurement data including a description of the procedures used to assess these parameters. Accuracy is the degree of agreement of a measurement with a true or known value. Precision is a measure of the agreement among individual measurements of the same parameters under similar conditions. Completeness is a measure of the amount of valid data obtained compared to the amount expected under normal conditions.



4.5 A quality control program shall be established to evaluate and track the quality of the emissions measurement data against preset criteria. The program should include where applicable a system of replicates, spiked samples, split samples, blanks and control charts. The number and frequency of such quality control checks shall be identified.



4.6 A sample tracking system shall be established to provide for positive identification of samples and data through all phases of the sample collection, analysis and reporting system. Sample handling and preservation  procedures shall be established to maintain the integrity of samples during collection, storage and analysis.



4.7 Periodic internal and external audits shall be performed to monitor compliance with the quality assurance program. These audits shall be performed in accordance with written procedures and conducted by personnel who do not have responsibility for performing any of the operations being audited.



4.8 A corrective action program shall be established including criteria for when corrective action is needed, what corrective actions will be taken and who is responsible for taking the corrective action.



4.9 Periodic reports to responsible management shall be prepared on the performance of the emissions measurements program. These reports should include assessment of the quality of the data, results of audits and description of corrective actions.



4.10 The quality assurance program should be documented in a quality assurance project plan which should address each of the above requirements.



5. References.

(1) American National Standards Institute, "Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities", ANSIN13.1-1969, American National Standards Institute, New York, New York (1969).

(2) American Public Health Association, "Methods of Air Sampling", 2nd Edition, Method 605, "Tentative Method of Analysis for Plutonium Content of Atmospheric Particulate Matter". American Public Health Association, New York, NY (1977).

(3) Ibid, Method 601, "Tentative Method of Analysis for Gross Alpha Radioactivity Content of the Atmosphere".

(4) Ibid, Method 602, "Tentative Method of the Analysis for Gross Beta Radioactivity Content of the Atmosphere".

(5) Ibid, Method 608, "Tentative Method of Analysis for Strontium90 Content of Atmospheric Particulate Matter".

(6) Ibid, Method 609, "Tentative Method of Analysis for Tritium Content of the Atmosphere".

(7) Ibid, Method 603, "Tentative Method of Analysis for Iodine131 Content of the Atmosphere".

(8) American Society for Testing and Materials, 1986 Annual Book ASTM Standards, Designation D-3648-78, "Standard Practices for the Measurement of Radioactivity". American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA (1986).

(9) Ibid, Designation D-3649-85, "Standard Practice for High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry".

(10) Ibid, Designation D-1943-81, "Standard Test Method for Alpha Particle Radioactivity of Water".

(11) Ibid, Designation D-1890-81, "Standard Test Method for Beta Particle Radioactivity of Water".

(12) Ibid, Designation D-2459-72, "Standard Test Method for Gamma Spectrometry of Water".

(13) Ibid, Designation D-3972-82, "Standard Test Method for Isotopic Uranium in Water by Radiochemistry".

(14) Ibid, Designation D-2907-83, "Standard Test Methods for Microquantities of Uranium in Water by Fluorometry".

(15) Ibid, Designation E-318, "Standard Test Method for Uranium in Aqueous Solutions by Colorimetry".

(16) Ibid, Designation D-3084-75, "Standard Practice for Alpha Spectrometry of Water".

(17) Corley, J.P. and C.D. Corbit, "A Guide for Effluent Radiological Measurements at DOE Installations", DOE/EP-0096, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington (1983).

(18) Department of Energy, "RESL Analytical Chemistry Branch Procedures Manual", IDO-12096, U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Falls, Idaho (1982). (19) Environmental Protection Agency, "Radiochemical Analytical Procedures for Analysis of Environmental Samples", EMSL-LV0539-17, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada (1979).

(20) Environmental Protection Agency, "Radiochemistry Procedures Manual", EPA 520/5-84-006, Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility, Montgomery, Alabama (1984).

(21) National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, NCRP Report No. 50, "Environmental Radiation Measurements", National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Bethesda, Maryland (1976).

(22) Ibid, Report No. 47, "Tritium Measurement Techniques" (1976).

(23) Ibid, Report No. 58 "A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurement Procedures" (1985).

(24) Environmental Protection Agency, "Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Protocols", EPA 520/1-89-009, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1989).